English NameBromine

No name in Urduبروم (عربی) ۔بَرَم(فارسی) ۔برومائن(اُردو)۔

Element GroupHalogens۔Halide mineral

Chemical SymbolsBr

Bromine (broh-meen or broh-min; from Greek: βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "stench (of he -goats)")is a chemical element with the symbol "Br", an atomic number of 35, and an atomic mass of 79.904. It is in the halogen element group. The element was isolated independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwig and Antoine Jerome Balard, in 1825–1826. Elemental bromine is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature, corrosive and toxic, with properties between those of chlorine and iodine. Free bromine does not occur in nature, but occurs as colorless soluble crystalline mineral halide salts, analogous to table salt. Bromine is rarer than about three-quarters of elements in the Earth's crust, however the high solubility of bromide ion has caused its accumulation in the oceans, and commercially the element is easily extracted from brine pools, mostly in the United States, Israel and China. About 556,000 tonnes were produced in 2007, an amount similar to the far more abundant element magnesium. At high temperatures, organobromine compounds are easily converted to free bromine atoms, a process which acts to terminate free radical chemical chain reactions. This makes such compounds useful fire retardants and this is bromine's primary industrial use, consuming more than half of world production of the element. The same property allows volatile organobromine compounds, under the action of sunlight, to form free bromine atoms in the atmosphere which are highly effective in ozone depletion. This unwanted side-effect has caused many common volatile brominated organics like methyl bromide, a pesticide that was formerly a large industrial bromine consumer, to be abandoned. Remaining uses of bromine compounds are in well-drilling fluids, as an intermediate in manufacture of organic chemicals, and in film photography. Bromine has no essential function in mammals, though it is preferentially used over chloride by one antiparasitic enzyme in the human immune system. Organobromides are needed and produced enzymatically from bromide by some lower life forms in the sea, particularly algae, and the ash of seaweed was one source of bromine's discovery. As a pharmaceutical, simple bromide ion, Br–, has inhibitory effects on the central nervous system, and bromide salts were once a major medical sedative, before being replaced by shorter- acting drugs. Elemental bromine exists as a diatomic molecule, Br2. It is a dense, mobile, slightly transparent reddish-brown liquid, that evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures to give an orange vapor (its color resembles nitrogen dioxide) that has a strongly disagreeable odor resembling that of chlorine. It is one of only two elements on the periodic table that are liquids at room temperature (mercury is the other, although caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature). Being less reactive than chlorine but more reactive than iodine, bromine reacts vigorously with metals, especially in the presence of water, to give bromide salts. It is also reactive toward most organic compounds, especially upon illumination, conditions that favor the dissociation of the diatomic molecule into bromine radicals: Br2 is in equilibrium with 2 Br· It bonds easily with many elements and has a strong bleaching action. It is highly soluble in organic solvents such as carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, aliphatic alcohols, and acetic acid. Bromine has two stable isotopes, 79Br (50.69 %) and 81Br (49.31%). At least 23 other radioisotopes are known. Many of the bromine isotopes are fission products. Several of the heavier bromine isotopes from fission are delayed neutron emitters. All of the radioactive bromine isotopes are relatively short lived. The longest half-life is the neutron deficient 77Br at 2.376 days. The longest half-life on the neutron rich side is 82Br at 1.471 days. A number of the bromine isotopes exhibit metastable isomers. Stable 79Br exhibits a radioactive isomer, with a half-life of 4.86 seconds. It decays by isomeric transition to the stable ground state. Bromine was discovered independently by two chemists, Carl Jacob Löwigand Antoine Balard,in 1825 and 1826, respectively. Balard found bromide chemicals in the ash of seaweed from the salt marshes of Montpellier. The seaweed was used to produce iodine, but also contained bromine. Balard distilled the bromine from a solution of seaweed ash saturated with chlorine. The properties of the resulting substance resembled that of an intermediate of chlorine and iodine; with those results he tried to prove that the substance was iodine monochloride (ICl), but after failing to do so he was sure that he had found a new element and named it muride, derived from the Latin word muria for brine. After the French chemists Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Louis Jacques Thénard, and Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac approved the experiments of the young pharmacist Balard, the results were presented at a lecture of the Académie des Sciences and published in Annales de Chimie et Physique.In his publication Balard states that he changed the name from muride to brôme on the proposal of M. Anglada. (Brôme (bromine) derives from the Greek βρωμος (stench).Other sources claim that the French chemist and physicist Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac suggested the name brôme for the characteristic smell of the vapors. Bromine was not produced in large quantities until 1860. The first commercial use, besides some minor medical applications, was the use of bromine for the daguerreotype. In 1840 it was discovered that bromine had some advantages over the previously used iodine vapor to create the light sensitive silver halide layer used for daguerreotypy. Potassium bromide and sodium bromide were used as anticonvulsants and sedatives in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, until they were gradually superseded by chloral hydrate and then the barbiturates. In the laboratory, because of its commercial availability and long shelf-life, bromine is not typically prepared. Small amounts of bromine can however be generated through the reaction of solid sodium bromide with concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The first stage is formation of hydrogen bromide (HBr), which is a gas, but under the reaction conditions some of the HBr is oxidized further by the sulfuric acid to form bromine (Br2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). NaBr (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → HBr (aq) + NaHSO4 (aq) 2 HBr (aq) + H2SO4 (aq) → Br2 (g) + SO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) Bromine has no known essential role in human or mammalian health, but inorganic bromine and organobromine compounds do occur naturally, and some may be of use to higher organisms in dealing with parasites. For example, in the presence of H2O2 formed by the eosinophil, and either chloride or bromide ions, eosinophil peroxidase provides a potent mechanism by which eosinophils kill multicellular parasites (such as, for example, the nematode worms involved in filariasis); and also certain bacteria (such as tuberculosis bacteria). Elemental bromine is toxic and causes burns. As an oxidizing agent, it is incompatible with most organic and inorganic compounds. Care needs to be taken when transporting bromine; it is commonly carried in steel tanks lined with lead, supported by strong metal frames. References: ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press. ^ Gemoll W, Vretska K (1997). Griechisch- Deutsches Schul- und Handwörterbuch ("Greek- German dictionary"), 9th ed.. öbvhpt. ISBN 3- 209-00108-1. ^ Lyday, Phyllis A. "Commodity Report 2007: Bromine". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-03. ^ Duan, Defang et al. (2007-09-26). "Ab initio studies of solid bromine under high pressure". Physical Review B 76 (10): 104113. Bibcode 2007PhRvB..76j4113D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.76.104113. ^ Audi, Georges (2003). "The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass Data Center) 729: 3. Bibcode 2003NuPhA.729....3A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001. ^ Löwig, Carl Jacob (1829). Das Brom und seine chemischen Verhältnisse (Bromine and its chemical relationships). Heidelberg: Carl Winter. ^ Löwig, Carl (1827). "Über Brombereitung und eine auffallende Zersetzung des Aethers durch Chlor (On the preparation of bromine and a striking decomposition of ether by chlorine)". Magazine für Pharmacie 21: 31–36. ^ Löwig, Carl (1828). "Über einige Bromverbindungen und über Bromdarstellung" (On some bromine compounds and on the production of bromine)". Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie 14: 485–499. ^ Löwig, Carl (1828). "Ueber einige Bromverbindungen und über Bromdarstellung". Annalen der Physik 90 (11): 485–499. Bibcode 1828AnP....90..485L. doi:10.1002/andp.18280901113. ^ Landolt, Hans Heinrich (1890). "Nekrolog: Carl Löwig". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 23 (3): 905. doi:10.1002/cber.18900230395. ^ Balard, A. J. (1826). "Mémoire sur une substance particulière contenue dans l'eau de la mer" (Memoir on a particular substance contained in seawater)". Annales de Chimie et de Physique 2nd series 32: 337–381. ^ Balard, Antoine (1826). "Memoire of a peculire Substance contained in Sea Water". Annals of Philosophy 28: 387– and 411–. ^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XVII. The halogen family". Journal of Chemical Education 9 (11): 1915. Bibcode 1932JChEd...9.1915W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1915. ^ Vauquelin, L.N.; Thenard, L.J.; Gay- Lussac, J.L. (1826). "Rapport sur la Mémoire de M. Balard relatif à une nouvelle Substance" (Report on a memoir by Mr. Balard regarding a new substance)". Annales de Chimie et de Physique 2nd series 32: 382–384. ^ On page 341 of his article, A. J. Balard (1826) "Mémoire sur une substance particulière contenue dans l'eau de la mer" (Memoir on a particular substance contained in seawater), Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 2nd series, vol. 32, pp. 337–381, Balard states that Mr. Anglada persuaded him to name his new element brôme. However, on page 382 of the same journal – "Rapport sur la Mémoire de M. Balard relatif à une nouvelle Substance" (Report on a memoir by Mr. Balard regarding a new substance), Annales de Chimie et de Physique, series 2, vol. 32, pp. 382–384. – a committee of the French Academy of Sciences claimed that they had renamed the new element brôme. ^ Wisniak, Jaime (2004). "Antoine-Jerôme Balard. The discoverer of bromine". Revista CENIC Ciencias Químicas 35. ^ Barger, M. Susan; White, William Blaine (2000). "Technological Practice of Daguerreotypy". The Daguerreotype: Nineteenth -century Technology and Modern Science. JHU Press. pp. 31–35. ISBN 9780801864582. ^ Shorter, Edward (1997). A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. John Wiley and Sons. p. 200. ISBN 9780471245315. ^ Tallmadge, John A; Butt, John B.; Solomon Herman J. (1964). "Minerals From Sea Salt". Ind. Eng. Chem. 56 (7): 44. doi:10.1021/ie50655a008. ^ Oumeish, Oumeish Youssef (1996). "Climatotherapy at the Dead Sea in Jordan". Clinics in Dermatology 14 (6): 659. doi:10.1016/S0738-081X(96)00101-0. ^ Al-Weshah, Radwan A (2008). "The water balance of the Dead Sea: an integrated approach". Hydrological Processes 14: 145. Bibcode 2000HyPr...14..145A. doi:10.1002/ (SICI)1099-1085(200001)14:1<145::AID- HYP916>3.0.CO;2-N. ^ Emsley, John (2001). "Bromine". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 69–73. ISBN 0198503407. ^ "Bromine:An Important Arkansas Industry". Butler Center for Arkansas Studies. ^ Lyday, Phyllis A. "Mineral Yearbook 2007: Bromine". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-03. ^ Bromine. USGS 2011 mineral commodities report ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 806. ISBN 0080379419. ^ Mills, Jack F. (2002). Bromine: in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_391. ^ Khan NA, Deatherage FE and Brown JB (1963), "Stearolic Acid", Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 4: 851 ^ Green, Joseph (1996). "Mechanisms for Flame Retardancy and Smoke suppression – A Review". Journal of Fire Sciences 14 (6): 426. doi:10.1177/073490419601400602. ^ Kaspersma, Jelle; Doumena, Cindy; Munrob Sheilaand; Prinsa, Anne-Marie (2002). "Fire retardant mechanism of aliphatic bromine compounds in polystyrene and polypropylene". Polymer Degradation and Stability 77 (2): 325. doi:10.1016/S0141-3910(02)00067-8. ^ Weil, Edward D.; Levchik, Sergei (2004). "A Review of Current Flame Retardant Systems for Epoxy Resins". Journal of Fire Sciences 22: 25. doi:10.1177/0734904104038107. ^ Alaeea, Mehran; Ariasb, Pedro; Sjödinc, Andreas; Bergman, Åke (2003). "An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release". Environment International 29 (6): 683. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00121-1. ^ Messenger, Belinda; Braun, Adolf (2000). "Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for the Control of Soil-Borne Diseases and Pests in California". Pest Management Analysis and Planning Program. Retrieved 2008-11-17. ^ Decanio, Stephen J.; Norman, Catherine S. (2008). "Economics of the "Critical Use" of Methyl bromide under the Montreal Protocol". Contemporary Economic Policy 23 (3): 376. doi:10.1093/cep/byi028. ^ Samuel Hopkins Adams (1905). The Great American fraud. Press of the American Medical Association. Retrieved 25 June 2011. ^ Butler, Alison; Carter-Franklin, Jayme N. (2004). "The role of vanadium bromoperoxidase in the biosynthesis of halogenated marine natural products". Natural Product Reports 21 (1): 180–8. doi:10.1039/b302337k. PMID 15039842. ^ Gribble, Gordon W. (1998). "Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds". Acc. Chem. Res. 31 (3): 141. doi:10.1021/ar9701777. ^ Friedländer, P. (1909). "Über den Farbstoff des antiken Purpurs aus murex brandaris". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 42: 765.
  1. ہائیڈروجِن
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