English NamePhosphorus

No name in Urduفسفور(عربی)۔ فسفر(فارسی)۔شبتاب(اُردو)۔

Element GroupNon-metals

Chemical SymbolsP

Phosphorus (fos-fər-əs) is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidized state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. The first form of elemental phosphorus to be produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen – hence its name given from Greek mythology, Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. Although the term "phosphorescence", meaning glow after illumination, derives from this property of phosphorus, the glow of phosphorus originates from oxidation of the white (but not red) phosphorus and should be called chemiluminescence. The vast majority of phosphorus compounds are consumed as fertilizers. Other applications include the role of organophosphorus compounds in detergents, pesticides and nerve agents, and matches. . Phosphate minerals are fossils. Low phosphate levels are an important limit to growth in some aquatic systems. Today, the most important commercial use of phosphorus- based chemicals is the production of fertilizers, to replace the phosphorus that plants remove from the soil. Twenty-three isotopes of phosphorus are known,including all possibilities from 24P up to 46P). Only 31P is stable and is therefore present at 100% abundance. Phosphorus is not found free in nature, but it is widely distributed in many minerals, mainly phosphates. Phosphate rock, which is partially made of apatite (an impure tri-calcium phosphate mineral), is an important commercial source of this element. About 50 percent of the global phosphorus reserves are in the Arab nations. Oxidation state Formula Name Acidic protons Compounds +1 H3PO2 hypophosphorous acid 1 acid, salts +3 H3PO3 (ortho)phosphorous acid 2 acid, salts +5 (HPO3)n metaphosphoric acids n salts (n=3,4) +5 H5P3O10 triphosphoric acid 3 salts +5 H4P2O7 pyrophosphoric acid 4 acid, salts +5 H3PO4 (ortho)phosphoric acid 3 acid, salts H3PO4 + H2O H3O+ + H2PO4− Ka1= 7.25×10−3 H2PO4− + H2O H3O+ + HPO42− Ka2= 6.31× 10−8 HPO42− + H2O H3O+ + PO43− Ka3= 3.98× 10−13 According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the correct spelling of the element is phosphorus. The word phosphorous is the adjectival form of the P3+ valence: so, just as sulfur forms sulfurous and sulfuric compounds, phosphorus forms phosphorous compounds (e.g., phosphorous acid) and P5+ valence phosphoric compounds (e.g., phosphoric acids and phosphates). The discovery of phosphorus is credited to the German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669, although other chemists might have discovered phosphorus around the same time.Brand experimented with urine, which contains considerable quantities of dissolved phosphates from normal metabolism,Working in Hamburg, Brand attempted to create the fabled philosopher's stone through the distillation of some salts by evaporating urine, and in the process produced a white material that glowed in the dark and burned brilliantly. It was named phosphorus mirabilis ("miraculous bearer of light") In 1974, the glow was explained by R. J. van Zee and A. U. Khan.A reaction with oxygen takes place at the surface of the solid (or liquid) phosphorus, forming the short- lived molecules HPO and P2O2 that both emit visible light. In 1769 Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) is found in bones, and they obtained phosphorus from bone ash. Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777. Inorganic phosphorus in the form of the phosphate PO43– is required for all known forms of life,playing a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural framework of these molecules. Living cells also use phosphate to transport cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nearly every cellular process that uses energy obtains it in the form of ATP. ATP is also important for phosphorylation, a key regulatory event in cells. Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. Calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones. Bone and teeth enamel The main component of bone is hydroxyapatite as well as amorphous forms of calcium phosphate, possibly including carbonate. Hydroxyapatite is the main component of tooth enamel. Water fluoridation enhances the resistance of teeth to decay by the partial conversion of this mineral to the still harder material called fluoroapatite. Ca5(PO4)3OH + F- → Ca5(PO4)3F + OH- References: ^ webelements ^ Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2006). "Phosphorus(I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds". Inorganic Chemistry 45 (17): 6864–74. doi:10.1021/ic060186o. PMID 16903744. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press. ^ Herbert Diskowski, Thomas Hofmann "Phosphorus" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_505 ^ A. Holleman, N. Wiberg (1985). "XV 2.1.3". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (33 ed.). de Gruyter. ISBN 3110126419. ^Berger, L. I. (1996). Semiconductor materials. CRC Press. p. 84. ISBN 0849389127. ^ Simon, Arndt; Borrmann, Horst; Horakh, Jörg (1997). "On the Polymorphism of White Phosphorus". Chemische Berichte 130: 1235. doi:10.1002/cber.19971300911. ^Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506- 3365-4. ^ Piro, N. A.; Figueroa, JS; McKellar, JT; Cummins, CC (2006). "Triple-Bond Reactivity of Diphosphorus Molecules". Science 313 (5791): 1276. Bibcode 2006Sci...313.1276P. doi:10.1126/science.1129630. PMID 16946068. ^ a b c d e Parkes & Mellor 1939, p. 717 ^ Parkes & Mellor 1939, pp. 721–722 ^ A. Brown, S. Runquist (1965). "Refinement of the crystal structure of black phosphorus". Acta Crystallogr. 19: 684. doi:10.1107/S0365110X65004140. ^ Cartz, L.;Srinivasa, S.R.;Riedner, R.J.;Jorgensen, J.D.;Worlton, T.G. (1979). "Effect of pressure on bonding in black phosphorus". Journal of Chemical Physics 71: 1718–1721. Bibcode 1979JChPh..71.1718C. doi:10.1063/1.438523. ^ Lange, Stefan; Schmidt, Peer and Nilges, Tom (2007). "Au3SnP7@Black Phosphorus: An Easy Access to Black Phosphorus". Inorg. Chem. 46 (10): 4028. doi:10.1021/ic062192q. PMID 17439206. ^ "The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project". Retrieved 2009-05-05. ^ "Phosphorus-32". University of Michigan Department of Occupational Safety & Environmental Health. Retrieved 2010-11-18. ^ "Phosphate Rock: Statistics and Information". USGS. Retrieved 2009-06-06. ^ Threlfall 1951, p. 51 ^ Podger 2002, pp. 297–298 ^ Carpenter S.R. and Bennett E.M. (2011). "Reconsideration of the planetary boundary for phosphorus". Environmental Research Letters 6 (1): 1–12. Bibcode 2011ERL.....6a4009C. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/1/014009.
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