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معنی: قائم رہنا

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Barium بیریم

English NameBarium
No name in Urduباریوم ۔ باریَم ۔بیریئم
Element GroupAlkaline Earth Metals
Chemical SymbolsBa



Barium (bair-ee-am) is a chemical element with the symbol "Ba" and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal.Barium is never found in nature in its pure form due to its reactivity with air. Its oxide is historically known as baryta but it reacts with water and carbon dioxide and is not found as a mineral. The most common naturally occurring minerals are the very insoluble barium sulfate, BaSO4 (barite), and barium carbonate, BaCO3 (witherite). Barium's name originates from Greek barys (bay-rey-s), meaning "heavy", describing the high density of some common barium-containing ores. Barium is a soft, silvery white alkali earth metal, which quickly oxidizes in air. It burns with a green to pale green flame, resulting from emission at 524.2 and 513.7 nm. Its simple compounds are notable for their relatively high (for an alkaline earth element) specific gravity. This high density is true of the most common barium-bearing mineral, barite (BaSO4), also called 'heavy spar' due to the high density (4.5 g/cm³). The metal is readily attacked in most acids, with the notable exception of sulfuric acid, as passivation stops the reaction by forming the insoluble barium sulfate. It also reacts violently with water according to the reaction: Ba + 2 H2O ---> Ba(OH)2 + H2 Naturally occurring barium is a mix of seven stable isotopes, the most abundant being 138Ba (71.7 %). 22 isotopes are known, but most of these are highly radioactive and have half-lives in the several millisecond to several day range. The only notable exceptions are 133Ba which has a half-life of 10.51 years, and 137mBa (2.55 minutes).133Ba is a standard calibrant for gamma-ray detectors in nuclear physics studies. At elevated temperatures, barium combines with nitrogen and hydrogen to produce the nitride Ba3N2 and hydride BaH2, respectively. When heated with nitrogen and carbon, it forms the cyanide: Ba + N2 + 2 C ---> Ba(CN)2 Barium's name originates from Greek barys, meaning "heavy", describing the density of some common barium-containing ores. Alchemists in the early Middle Ages knew about some barium minerals. Smooth pebble-like stones of mineral barite found in Bologna, Italy were known as "Bologna stones". Witches and alchemists were attracted to them because after exposure to light they would glow for years. References ^ Stwertka, Albert (2002). A guide to the elements. Oxford University Press US. pp. 144. ISBN 0195150279. ^ a b c d Robert Kresse, Ulrich Baudis, Paul Jäger, H. Hermann Riechers, Heinz Wagner, Jochen Winkler, Hans Uwe Wolf, "Barium and Barium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_325.pub2 ^ David,R. Lide, Norman E. Holden (2005). "Section 11, Table of the Isotopes". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ^ Industrial minerals. 1969. p. 28. ^ "Alston Moor Cumbria, UK". Steetley Minerals. ^C. R. Hammond (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814. ^ "Toxicological Profile for Barium and Barium Compounds. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry". CDC. 2007.. ^Robert E. Krebs (2006). The history and use of our earth's chemical elements: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 80. ISBN 0313334382. ^ Davy, H. (1808) "Electro-chemical researches on the decomposition of the earths; with observations on the metals obtained from the alkaline earths, and on the amalgam procured from ammonia," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 98, pages 333-370. ^ "Masthead". Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie 93 (3): fmi–fmi. 1855. doi:10.1002/jlac.18550930301.

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